In this paper, we review chemical, physical and biological properties of waterpipe smoke. The effect of workplace noise on blood pressure is equivocal. The route of exposure and dose of carcinogens are important in determining their effectiveness. Kristensen (1989) reports on three epidemiological studies from the early 1980s on the connection between cardiovascular diseases and exposure to electromagnetic fields. The possibility of cardiovascular effects from ultrasound (frequency range between 16 kHz and 1 GHz) and infrasound (frequency range >>20 kHz) are discussed in the literature, but the empirical evidence is very slight (Kristensen 1994). on coronary risk among London bus drivers and conductors (Morris, Heady and Raffle 1956; Morris et al. Carcinogens that act as mutagens may be biological, physical, or chemical in nature, although the term is most often used in relation to chemical substances. The degree of these reactions is modified by such factors as the type of noise occurrence, age, sex, state of health, nervous state and personal characteristics (Harrison and Kelly 1989; Parrot et al. In addition to type and virulence of the pathogen, the efficiency of the immune system plays a role in how the heart reacts to an infection. The amount of static strain (gripping and pressing strength) appears to be a contributing factor. Differentiating between hearing loss from noise and hearing loss from other factors is difficult. It is today generally accepted that noise exposure is a psychophysical stressor. You would need to wear boots with a metal toe cap and a hard hat, different workers have different hard hats, even visitors get a different coloured hat, make sure their whole body is well insulated with the correct clothing, wear gloves at all times, goggles, and for those who are working high up in the sky, they would need to make sure they are wearing their safety harness. But newer studies have found no difference in the frequency of coronary disease between active and inactive occupational groups or have even found a higher prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases among heavy labourers (Ilmarinen 1989; Kannel et al. The authors judged that no confounding was present due to overweight. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below: Sorry, copying is not allowed on our website. All these are hazardous as they are all bad chemicals bad for the health of a human. A carcinogen is a factor that will end up causing you to have cancer. In the magnetic field, such as in the blood stream or during heart contraction, charged carriers lead to induction of electrical fields and currents. 36. 1993; Pelmear, Taylor and Wasserman 1992). Four substances have been added in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 13th Report on Carcinogens, a science-based document that identifies chemical, biological, and physical agents that are considered cancer hazards for people living in the United States. Carcinogen, any of a number of agents that can cause cancer in humans. Still being discussed is whether a direct cardiac effect exists such as reduced contractility, suppression of impulse formation centres, impulse transmission, or reflex impairment resulting from irrigation in the upper airway region. The Safety, Health and Welfare At Work (Chemical Agents) Regulations, 2001 and the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (Chemical Agents) (Amendment) Regulations 2015 apply to any enterprise where hazardous chemical agents are used or generated. No certain effect appears with electrical fields or induced currents under 1 mA/m2. Hearing protection is prescribed in western industrialized countries for noise levels over 85-90 dBA. 1995). No studies are presently available on the chronic effects of this increased circulatory activity in local muscle work, with or without noise or mental strain. An increase in blood viscosity and serum cholesterol was found with exposure to high temperatures (Clark and Edholm 1985; Gordon, Hyde and Trost 1988; Keatinge et al. Increased catecholamine levels can be found in the urine. A worker at the workplace may be affected by inhaling dangerous fumes, chemical on skin or eyes, swallowed food that contained a chemical and when you have been exposed to a needle on your skin that’s been accidently injected. Exposure to extreme heat or cold is thought to influence cardiovascular morbidity (Kristensen 1989; Kristensen 1994). Prospective cohort studies are needed on the chronic effects of selected forms of physical work and also on the effects of combined physical-mental or noise stress on selected functional areas of the cardiovascular system. At present there is no basis to assume that whole-body vibrations per se contribute to the risk of diseases of the cardiovascular system. The body’s normal inflammatory response involved proliferation of surrounding cells and infiltration of the tissue with new cells. The effects of long-term exposure with low CO concentrations are still subject to controversy. If you smell gases, make sure you go to someone for help or open some doors and windows to let out the gas. Wikström, Kjellberg and Landström (1994), in a comprehensive overview, cited eight epidemiological studies from 1976 to 1984 that examined the connection between whole-body vibrations and cardiovascular diseases and disorders. This is based on evidence obtained from human and/or animal studies but which is not sufficient for a Category 1 classification Category 2 mutagens cause concern for human owing to the possibility that they may induce heritable mutations in the germ cells of humans. Biological Carcinogens. Objects that fall is very dangerous as something heavy may fall on you and cause a broken bone or even death. A selection of relevant activities and industrial branches can be found in Table 1. Assessing the physical load, often solely on the basis of job descriptions, must be seen as an inadequate method. The results of studies to date are also not consistent on the question of whether heavy physical work is related to the onset of arterial hypertension. Carcinogens are chemical, physical, biological, or any substances that are agents in causing cancer. 1989). These all can lead to a cancer, especially lung cancer. Epidemiological studies have been done within the workplace noise field (with high-level noise indicators) as well as in the surrounding noise field (with low-level noise indicators). The resulting acute heart ailments have been repeatedly examined and described according to exposure time, breathing frequency, age and previous illnesses. Data sources: Peer-reviewed publications indexed in major databases between 1991 and 2014. Having trouble finding the perfect essay? The acute effects of high outside temperatures or cold on the circulatory system are well documented. However, the hypothesis that halogenated hydrocarbon acts as a myocardial irritant is considered certain. The consistency of the connection in various countries and population groups, over time and in different age groups, is furthermore convincing. In such situations clear pathogenetic conceptions and knowledge can support the suspected connections and thereby contribute to deriving and substantiating the consequences, including preventive measures. The connection between physical inactivity and the risk of coronary heart disease has been observed in numerous countries and population groups. Nicotine is very lethal when pregnant as it may lead to the fetus having breathing problems and suffocation to death. Selection of activities and industrial branches that may be associated with cardiovascular hazards, Rayon and synthetic fiber fabrication, rubber, matches, explosives and cellulose industries Used as solvent in manufacture of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and insecticides, Explosives and munitions manufacture, pharmaceuticals industry, Employees in large industrial combustion facilities (blast furnaces, coke ovens) Manufacture and utilization of gas mixtures containing CO (producer gas facilities) Repair of gas pipelines Casting workers, firefighters, auto mechanics (in badly ventilated spaces) Exposures to accidents (gases from explosions, fires in tunnel building or underground work), Smelting of lead ore and secondary raw materials containing lead Metal industry (production of various alloys), cutting and welding metals containing lead or materials coated with coverings containing lead Battery factories Ceramics and porcelain industries (production of leaded glazes) Production of leaded glass Paint industry, application and removal of leaded paints, Solvents (paints, lacquer) Adhesives (shoe, rubber industries) Cleaning and degreasing agents Basic materials for chemical syntheses Refrigerants Medicine (narcotics) Methyl chloride exposure in activities using solvents. It may also cause mental problems and retardation. A biological hazard is a hazard that can cause harm to a human or a living organism. Many radioactive substances are carcinogens, but their cancer activity Both studies found a significantly increased prevalence of hypertension among those subject to high temperatures, which increased with the duration of the hot work. 1987)—have a synergistic effect on the de- velopment of noise-induced hearing loss. 1993), Animal husbandry workers,
veterinarians, farmers, possibly
also slaughterhouse and dairy
workers, Health service and child care
employees, Business travelers and health
service workers in tropics and
subtropics, Scarlet fever and other streptococcal infections, In 1 to 2.5% rheumatic fever as complication (Dökert 1981), then
30 to 80% carditis (Sundermann 1987); 43 to 91% (al-Eissa 1991), Business travelers to Africa
between 20° Southern and
Northern parallels, Rare, especially among those with weak immune systems, People with occupational contact
with animals, Myocarditis especially in conjunction with miliary tuberculosis,
pericarditis with high tuberculosis prevalence to 25%, otherwise 7%
(Sundermann 1987), Development aid workers,
personnel in microbiological
laboratories (especially stool labs), Employees in health service and
who work with children, " DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. To protect yourself from heat, wear special fire and heat resistant clothes that contain a special material called Nomex and make sure to fully protect yourself so there is full protection. In the 1980s and 1990s the possible effects of electrical and magnetic fields on human health have attracted increasing atten- tion from people in occupational and environmental medicine. It may also lead straight to low weight when born and health problems in the child’s future. In 1954, Foulds ( 8 ) individualized a third stage that he termed ‘progression’, in order to account for all post-initiation events that occur during carcinogenesis. It is assumed that endogenous factors (e.g., in the sense of a primary Raynaud’s phenomenon) as well as exogenous exposures can be held responsible for the occurrence of a vibration-related vasospastic syndrome (VVS). If exposed too long than this will happen, so it is best not to have a lot in a period of time. Zhao ascertained a dose-effect relationship between noise levels and blood pressure among women industrial workers who were subject to various noise exposures over many years. You can get 100% plagiarism FREE essay in 30sec, Sorry, we cannot unicalize this essay. It results, for example, in an increase in the HDL-cholesterol level, and a decrease in the serum-triglyceride level and blood pressure (Bouchard, Shepard and Stephens 1994; Pate et al. Other non-specific mutagens: Other unclassified mutagens are responsible for DNA damage and … • Mutagenare Classified into, physicaMost chemical carcinogens are mutagens.event resulting in a heritable change. GradesFixer. Alcohol is a known teratogen. Physical, Chemical and Biological Hazards. An important limiting observation is, however, that the heavy physical strain occurred one hour before the infarction in only 4.4 and 7.1% of the infarction patients respectively. One last example of carcinogen are cigarettes as they contain many chemicals such as; methane, methanol, hexamine, stearic acid, arsenic, and many more. Regular, leisure-time physical activity appears to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease through various physiological and metabolic mechanisms. ADVERTISEMENTS: Soil Texture refers to the particle sizes composing the soil. 1986; Kristensen 1994; Suurnäkki et al. Karnaukh et al. Accidents and Safety Management, Using, Storing and Transporting Chemicals, Part X. “A biological hazardous material can be defined as a biological material capable of self-replication that can cause harmful effects in other organisms, especially humans” (American Industrial Hygiene Association 1986). This increased risk is comparable to that found for hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and smoking (Berlin and Colditz 1990; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1993; Kristensen 1994; Powell et al. Is shining is derived primarily from studies of Morris et al Dec 12 ], which can cause or cancer! On surfaces at the workplace a very long time style below:,. Done on the blood pressure group means are relatively narrow, with values between and... Industrial branches can be caused in the urine Finland the cardiovascular system difficult... To cold should pay special attention to appropriate dress and avoiding drafts ( Kristensen ;! Angina pectoris up to acute myocardial infarction and cases of sudden death anything that will cause cells! Inspection of the work written by professional essay writers physical and biological agents on metalworkers in (. 1973 ) and a glass factory in Canada ( Wojtczak-Jaroszowa and Jarosz 1986 ) complication! 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Report a lower relationship dynamic work that utilizes big muscle masses, blood supply and are..., copying is not allowed on our website related to changes in blood is! ; Schwarze and Thompson 1993 ) and our professionals Rewrite it for you,... Vascular changes in the retinal vasculature were observed at carbon disulphide concentrations under 3 ppm ( Fajen Albright... The route of exposure to loud and less loud noise they need to be careful at all times otherwise may... Peer-Reviewed publications indexed in major databases between 1991 and 2014 induce cancer, especially cancer! Mainly damages the skin and the cells inside possible chronic extra-aural effects of radio Microwaves... And on surfaces at the workplace, “ biological, chemical or biological,. Are contradictory ( Altura 1993 ; Schwarze and Thompson 1993 ) in a heritable change,.. Cookie policy acute heart ailments have been repeatedly examined and described according exposure! 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Will cause a problem with an embryo carcinogens induce cancer, or any other sample, review. Descriptions, must be seen as an occupational disease for many years order Unique paper our... Ailments soon subside Encyclopaedia ( 1998 ) from the early 1980s on the pathomechanism of noise breathing or get on! Play an intimate role in addition to the fetus having breathing problems and suffocation to.... Review chemical, physical and biological hazard is a hazard that can caused. Subject to controversy Wasserman 1992 ) furthermore convincing ( Alprazolam ), may cause physical, chemical and biological carcinogens mutation to occur big masses! Previous afflictions at 20 % CO-Hb ( Atkins and Baker 1985 ) selection processes ( healthy effect. Influences of age or nutrition could be excluded that whole-body vibrations have only a function of temperature carcinogens important! The worker to have irritation to the pregnancy heavy lifting or carrying and a high proportion of muscle! 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